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Hungry Ghost Festival: A cultural guide to explore a feast for the spirits

14/01/2024 9.205

The Hungry Ghost Festival has a tremendous position in Asia’s spiritual landscape, honoring the great value of respect for those who have passed away.

Hungry Ghost Festival

The Hungry Ghost Festival is a unique occasion filled with vibrant performances, food offerings, and ancestral rites. Signifying the connection between the living and the departed, it holds profound cultural and spiritual significance, honoring and appeasing restless spirits. As a distinctive cultural aspect of Asia travel as well as Vietnam travel, the festival will be a great experience for Western visitors.

1. The origins and significance of Hungry Ghost Festival

What is the Hungry Ghost Festival? Rooted in Asian culture, it is an annual event held to honor and appease restless spirits. Its origins can be traced back to ancient Buddhist and Taoist beliefs.

According to ghost festival history, the gates of the underworld open during the seventh month of the lunar calendar. This allows the deceased to visit the living realm.

These spirits, known as hungry ghosts, are said to be filled with hunger, thirst, and unfulfilled desires. The festival aims to alleviate their suffering.

During this month-long event, various rituals and traditions take place. Families pay homage to their ancestors by offering food, burning incense, and setting up elaborate altars.

Hungry Ghost Festival

The streets come alive with vibrant performances, including traditional Chinese opera, dance, and puppet shows. Lanterns are lit to guide the spirits, and elaborate paper effigies are burned as offerings.

The significance of the festival extends beyond the act of appeasing spirits. It serves as a reminder of filial piety—honoring and respecting one's ancestors.

It also emphasizes the belief in the sacred connection between the living and the deceased, fostering a sense of unity and continuity.

Moreover, the festival promotes compassion and generosity. It is customary to distribute food, clothes, and other necessities to those in need, both as acts of charity and to provide for wandering spirits. This gesture of kindness is seen as a way to accumulate merit and ensure blessings for oneself and one's family.

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2. How do Asian people prepare for the Hungry Ghost Festival?

Preparation for the Hungry Ghost Festival involves observing various ghost festival traditions and making elaborate arrangements. Here are a few of the steps taken to prepare for this significant event:

Hungry Ghost Festival
  • Setting up the ritual table: Families create an altar or stage in their homes, adorned with incense, candles, and paper effigies.
  • Burning of joss paper: Joss paper, also known as ghost money, is burned to provide the spirits with material possessions in the afterlife.
  • Offering food: Elaborate meals are prepared and placed on the altar, consisting of a variety of dishes ranging from fruits and sweets to traditional favorites loved by the deceased.
  • Performances and ceremonies: Theatrical performances, music, and traditional rituals are held to entertain the ghosts and ensure their happiness and fulfillment.
  • Lantern lighting: Floating lanterns are released into the water or hung in the streets to guide the spirits and help them find their way back to the spirit world.
  • Hanging red lanterns and banners: Red is believed to ward off evil spirits, so hanging red lanterns and banners is a common practice.
  • Attending religious ceremonies: People participate in religious ceremonies at temples or community centers to seek blessings.
  • Praying and making wishes: Individuals offer prayers and make wishes for their ancestors' well-being and their own fortune.

These additional activities contribute to the overall ambiance and spiritual significance of the Hungry Ghost Festival, allowing individuals to honor their ancestors and foster a sense of unity within their communities.

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3. Hungry Ghost Festival celebrations in popular Asian countries

The Hungry Ghost Festival exhibits a rich tapestry of cultural diversity, with distinct variations observed across Asia.

With China, Taiwan, Japan, Singapore, Malaysia, Vietnam, etc., each country adds its own unique flavor to the festival. They all showcase a fascinating blend of local customs, beliefs, and traditions.

3.1. Taiwan

Hungry Ghost Festival in Taiwan offers a unique experience steeped in rich cultural heritage.

One notable highlight is the mesmerizing "Yin Yang Master" performances. Skilled practitioners engage in rituals and spiritual displays to appease and guide the roaming spirits.

Elaborate street processions, featuring vibrant floats and costumed participants, create a lively atmosphere. Meanwhile, offerings and prayers are made to ensure the well-being of both the living and the departed.

Ghost-themed operas, known as "Gezaixi," feature dramatic storytelling and traditional music, making them an unforgettable celebration of tradition and spirituality.

Hungry Ghost Festival

3.2. Japan

Obon or Bon Festival are the names of the Hungry Ghost Festival in Japan. Obon is a time when families gather to honor their ancestors, visiting gravesites and holding ceremonies at home altars. Lanterns are lit and placed on riverbanks or released into the sky, guiding the spirits back to the world of the living. Additionally, people perform the Bon Odori dance as one of the traditional rituals.

The festival also includes the preparation of special dishes like somayaki (thin wheat noodles) and ohagi (sweet rice balls). These dishes are offered to the spirits as a gesture of remembrance and respect.

The Hungry Ghost Festival in Japan beautifully intertwines reverence, unity, and cultural festivities to pay homage to ancestors.

3.3. Singapore and Malaysia

The Hungry Ghost Festival in Singapore and Malaysia has its own unique highlights, adding to the cultural tapestry of the event.

In Singapore, elaborate street performances and live shows take center stage, captivating audiences with Chinese opera, puppetry, and traditional music, creating a festive atmosphere.

Meanwhile, in Malaysia, the festival is celebrated with great pomp and grandeur, featuring massive outdoor stages for performances, vibrant processions, and the release of lanterns into the night sky. 

These ceremonies create a mesmerizing atmosphere that brings communities together in a spirit of unity and reverence.

Hungry Ghost Festival

3.4. Vietnam

The Hungry Ghost Festival in Vietnam is known as the Vu Lan Festival or Ghost Month. Ancestor worship is a central aspect, with families offering elaborate altars and conducting rituals to honor their deceased loved ones.

Vietnamese people also release small, lit paper lanterns on rivers and lakes to guide the spirits back to the afterlife, creating a breathtaking spectacle.

The festival is characterized by vibrant street performances, including traditional music, dance, and theatrical shows, reflecting the cultural richness of Vietnam.

The occasion embodies values of filial piety, gratitude, and honoring ancestors. It serves as a reminder to pay respects to departed loved ones and reinforces the importance of family, cultural heritage, and communal harmony.

To experience the most authentic and captivating experience of the Vietnamese Hungry Ghost Festival, you will need to be in the cultural hubs of the country. Hoi An Ancient Town, Hanoi Old Quarter, Ho Chi Minh City, Da Nang are some of the best destinations for you to learn more about the traditions of Vietnam.

Hungry Ghost Festival

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Hungry Ghost Festival


Hungry Ghost Festival

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4. Dos and don'ts during Hungry Ghost Festival

It is important to be aware of what to do and what not to do at the Hungry Ghost Festival. Keeping these tips on your travel checklist will ensure a meaningful and peaceful experience during the festival.

What you should do during the festival:

  • Participate in cultural activities and observe local traditions to immerse yourself in the festival's spirit.
  • Respect and follow any instructions or guidelines provided by local authorities or event organizers.
  • Make offerings at altars or temples if you feel inclined, as a way to show respect and honor the spirits.
  • Enjoy the performances and ceremonies, such as music, dance, and traditional shows, that are part of the festival celebrations.
  • Try local dishes and treats associated with the events, as they offer a glimpse into the culinary traditions of the region.
Hungry Ghost Festival

What you should avoid during the Hungry Ghost Festival:

  • Disturb or disrespect the offerings and altars set up by others during the festival.
  • Take pictures or record videos without permission, especially during sensitive rituals or ceremonies.
  • Litter or leave trash behind, as it is important to keep the festival venues and surroundings clean and respectful.
  • Make jokes about or mock the beliefs and practices associated with the festival, as it is a significant and sacred time for many.
  • Engage in any behavior that may be considered disrespectful or disruptive to the local community or the spirits being honored. You may ask the locals if you are not sure about something.

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The Hungry Ghost Festival is a captivating and deeply significant event that bridges the gap between the living and the departed. Through its rich traditions, mesmerizing performances, and vibrant cultural expressions, this festival holds a special place in the hearts of communities across Asia. It serves as a time for remembrance, honoring ancestors, and fostering a sense of unity and spirituality. The festival is a testament to the enduring connection between past and present, offering a window into the diverse beliefs and customs that shape the cultural fabric of the region.

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